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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Men who have sex with men MSM for the largest of persons diagnosed with AIDS in the United States, with higher than-average rates of drug use and unprotected sex being cited as the principal reasons underlying their high rates of HIV infection. Recent evidence has suggested that the use of Web sites specifically deed to promote unsafe sexual practices may be particularly common among MSM, therebyfostering their risky behaviots.
Data were collected between September and January Rates of advertised-for high-risk sexual behaviots were very high both for men whose profiles were among the most popular and those whose profiles were not, particularly for oral sex involving ejaculation into the mouth, anal sex involving ejaculation into the anus, multiple partner sex, and fetching. Ihe HIV intenention-related implications of these findings Kensington-MD sexual encounter ads discussed. How men who wish to have high-risk sex with other men locate potential sex partners has been the subject of relatively little research, however.
Another common way for men who wish to have unprotected sex with other men to locate potential partners is by frequenting public venues e. These locales often offer MSM seeking unprotected sex the opportunities they seek to find willing partners, but they have inherent drawbacks as well. Police enforcement efforts often disrupt sex-seeking behaviors in known male-to-male cruising spots and these men are often prosecutedand it is not uncommon for non-cruising people to show up in these public venues to utilize them for their intended purposes e.
In recent years, with the proliferation of the Intemet, many men who wish to find other men specifically for engaging in unprotected sex appear to be tuming to MSM-oriented Web sites for this purpose. Halkitis, Parsons, and Wilton cited Internet Web sites and chat rooms as key sources that are partly responsible for the upsurge of unprotected sexual activities that they have observed among gay and bisexual men in the New York City area. Another study examining the role that Internet usage plays with regard to HIV risk taking found that persons who had a history of meeting sex partners via the Internet reported more frequent involvement in risky sexual behaviors than persons who had not met sex partners online Mustanski, With mounting evidence of the importance of the role that the Internet may play in fostering sexual encounters between men who specifically wish to have unprotected sex with other men, it becomes important to understand male-sexual-content Web site usage in this population.
A variety of important questions emerge. First, what specific types of risky behaviors are these men seeking? Third, what characteristics are being sought in potential partners?
Are HIV-negative men who are using these male-sexual-content Web sites seeking overall lower levels of risky behaviors than HIV-positive men are? Also of specific interest and importance is the development of a good understanding of the types of characteristics that lead some profiles to be more searched for than others. Are the most-searched-for profiles those expressing an interest in higher- or lower-than-average rates of risky behaviors? This research relies upon content analysis as the principal analytical tool. The data were collected between September and January using one of the largest MSM-oriented Web sites currently available on the Intemet.
At the time of data collection, the site had more thanregistered users the large majority of whom reside in the United States and it was growing at a rate of several hundred persons per month. This Web site allows members to post profiles including photographs describing themselves, and there are no length restrictions placed on profiles posted.
Men residing outside of the United States were excluded from this research, so as to keep it an America-focused study. This led to the exclusion of 67 cases 4.
In all, 1, profiles constitute the sample for this research. Each day, the site gathers statistics and reports on its home the 20 members whose profiles were the most searched for on the site the day. Therefore, chi-square tests are appropriate for examining differences in responding based on sexual orientation. The sample approximates the Arnerican population fairly well in terms of its racial composition, with One-third of the men The sample, like the American population in general, tended to be skewed toward people residing in more densely populated areas.
One-fifth of the men At the other end of the spectrum, showed a strong tendency for the most-searched-for profiles to have been posted by younger men than by their older counterparts.
HIV serostatus was also a key factor differentiating men whose profiles were among the most active and those whose profiles were not. Persons who were actively seeking to become HIV infected i. Table 1 presents the findings of the multivariate analysis undertaken to determine which factors contribute uniquely and ificantly to the prediction of whose profiles are the most searched for.
In all, 11 variables were retained in the final multivariate equation. Second, two of the measures penained to HIV serostatus. Fourth, several of the risk preference measures were identified as unique contributors in the multivariate model.
Together, these items ed for approximately This content analysis research was conducted using one specific Web site and, therefore, there is no way to know whether users of this particular site are similar to or different from those who frequent other sites instead. As a Web site specifically deed to foster contacts between men who wish to locate sexual partners with whom they can have unprotected sex, rather than being a Web site deed to foster male-tomale contacts of a rnore general nature e.
Although the Web site has a substantial Latino and multiracial membership This may prevent non-English speakers from utilizing the Web site, and this may limit the generalizability of the findings somewhat. Finally, as a content analysis project, this research is unable to assess the extent to which the behaviors advertised for in the do or do not Ida represent Kensington-MD sexual encounter ads behaviors practiced when people meet in person.
It is impossible to know whether the person would engage in all of the same sexual behaviors with a partner who is known to be HIV positive that he would with a partner who is not HIV positive or a partner with whom there is no discussion of HIV serostatus. Published studies cited earlier in this paper showing that men who use the Internet to locate sexual partners are very likely to meet up with such individuals for sex i. Nevertheless, this needs to be established with additional research. Despite these potential—and, the present author would contend, minimal—limitations, the present research has much to offer in terns of helping to understand the content of posted on Web sites deed to foster unprotected sexual encounters among men seeking to have sex with other men.
Compared to those that were less popular, the most popular or active profiles were placed by men who wanted to find partners on whom they could perform oral sex and swallow the semen, partners who would perform anal sex on them and then ejaculate internally, partners with whom they could engage in the high-risk practice of felching, and partners who would be willing to penetrate them anally at the same time that another man was doing the same thing i.
For example, men whose stipulated an unwillingness to use condoms or to allow a partner to use condoms were more than nine times as likely co be among the most frequently searched as men whose did not make such a stipulation. Ali of these behaviors and risk-related preferences are consistent with one very important finding of this research: When MSM use Web sites to locate potential sex partners, they tend to be looking for partners with whom they can engage in very risky behaviors.
From a public health perspective, this finding indicates a great need for HIV prevention and intervention programs to target men who have sex with other men and who use the Internet to locate potential sex partners. This research Kensington-MD sexual encounter ads several such characteristics, a few of which are discussed below. First, younger men were more likely to have popular profiles than were older men. Helping younger men to personalize HIV—something that is often much less necessary with older adults, who have lost more friends to AIDS than the current, younger generation of MSM have—may be one crucial part of this strategy.
Second, persons of color were more likely than their Caucasian counterparts to have highly-sought-after profiles. The expectation that many African-American men will have larger-than-average penises makes them attractive partners to many MSM using Web sites to locate potential sex partners. Moreover, men of Kensington-MD sexual encounter ads, particularly those of African-American and Latino descent, are less likely to have been circumcised compared to their Caucasian counterparts National Center for Health Statistics, Many MSM eroticize the state of being uncircumsized and fantasize about having sex with men who are uncircumsized, presumably in part due to the novelty of finding such men as their sex panners.
Another factor that is likely to be in operation here pertains to the adherence to cultural stereotypes of being dominated sexually by someone who is perceived to be extremely masculine, as would be the case with Latino and African-American men Diaz, ; Girman, Regardless of the specific origin s of the greater preference for locating sex partners who are nonwhite, the fact remains that this preference prevailed in this study and it was associated with a greater likelihood of seeking high-risk behaviors.
Moreover, educating them about other, safer ways to engage in these activities or in other sexual activities that are less risky but that provide them with many of the same sexual sensations could also prove useful. While this behavior still carries with it a measure of HIV risk, it is a lower level of risk than the same behavior that entails performing the oral sex to the point of completion and intemal ejaculation.
The same approach could be taken to receiving anal sex, with the same relative reduction in risk applying. As another example, men who like to receive anal sex from their partners might be talked into having their partners use sex toys e. The key, the present author believes, is to find ways of eliminating risk whenever possible through education and increased knowledge, for example and other ways of reducing risk whenever complete extinction of risk is unrealistic to expect. This is, in the purest sense, an advocacy for the implementation of a harm-reduction approach Westermeyer, to dealing with the problem of actively seeking unprotected sex among men who have sex with other men.
These terms retcr 10 the sexual aclS that the men typically preter doing with their panner. With the site used in this research, membership is free to all who wish to utilize the Web site, and additional membership features are available for purchase for persons wishing to upgrade their usage of the site.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv. Author manuscript; available in PMC Sep 5. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC Kensington-MD sexual encounter ads cite the published article. Abstract Men who have sex with men MSM for the largest of persons diagnosed with AIDS in the United States, with higher than-average rates of drug use and unprotected sex being cited as the principal reasons underlying their high rates of HIV infection.
Open in a separate window. Conclusions Despite these potential—and, the present author would contend, minimal—limitations, the present research has much to offer in terns of helping to understand the content of posted on Web sites deed to foster unprotected sexual encounters among men seeking to have sex with other men. Footnotes 1. Culture, Healthand Sexuality7— Use of gay Internet sites and views about online health promotion among men who have sex with men.
AIDS Care16—Kensington-MD sexual encounter ads
email: [email protected] - phone:(522) 283-3627 x 3840
Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet: Whose Profiles Are the Most Searched for by Other Site Users?